Wednesday, August 31, 2005
Terrorist: Terrorism group Jemaah Islamiyah has schemes, revealed in a 40-page manifesto (the Pupji book or "General Guide to the Struggle of Jemaah Islamiyah"), for a suicide bombing caign designed to change Asia and the Pacific region into Islamic provinces. Jemaah Islamiyah is also shown to be a well-formed organization with a constitution, rules of operation, and leadership structure. //www.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,4057,7128251%255E401,00.html
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency declassifies carbon dioxide as a pollutant, a move seen as leading to the elimination of restrictions on industrial emissions of the controversial gas. Climate scientists have debated carbon dioxide's role in global warming for over a decade, with most voices (though notably fewer within the US) calling it the biggest factor, while others call it negligible. //news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=438719
A magnitude 5.9 earthquake
, killing 143 and injuring more than 2,000.
Death of Diana, Princess of Wales: Diana, Princess of Wales is taken to hospital after a car accident shortly after midnight, in the Pont de l'Alma road tunnel in Paris. She is pronounced dead at 3:00 am.
Saturday, August 31, 1991
Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Kyrgyzstan
declare independence from the Soviet Union.
Thursday, August 31, 1989
In the aftermath of the Chadian–Libyan conflict of 1978-87, representatives of Libya and Chad agreed to let the International Court of Justice determine ownership of the Aouzou Strip, which had been occupied by Libya since 1973.
Saturday, August 31, 1985
Richard Ramirez, the serial killer known as the Night Stalker, is captured in Los Angeles.
President Johnson signs a law penalizing the burning of draft cards with up to 5 years in prison and a $1,000 fine.
A referendum in Singapore
supports the Malayan Federation.
Typhoon Wanda strikes Hong Kong, killing at least 130 and wounding more than 600.
Thursday, August 31, 1961
Construction of the Berlin Wall is completed after just 18 days.
Saturday, August 31, 1957
The Federation of Malaya gains independence from the United Kingdom. Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhammad, Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan becomes the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaya.
The Grenzlandring racetrack closes in Wegberg, Germany.
Wednesday, August 31, 1949
The retreat of the Greek Democratic Army in Albania after its defeat at Mount Grammos marks the end of the Greek Civil War
The communists seize power in Hungary.
WWII: Allied troops arrest German field marshal Walther von Brauchitsch.
Thursday, August 31, 1944
A general strike
is launched in Luxembourg to protest against forced conscription.
Wednesday, August 31, 1938
September ndash The European crisis over German demands for annexation of the Sudeten borderland of Czechoslovakia heats up.
Winston Churchill, still believing France and Britain mean to honor their promises to defend Czechoslovakia against Nazi aggression, suggests in a personal note to Neville Chamberlain that His Majesty's Government may want to set up a broad international alliance including the United States (specifically mentioning U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt as possibly receptive to the idea) and the Soviet Union.
Saturday, August 31, 1929
Australia enters the First World War.
Saturday, August 31, 1907
Thursday, August 31, 1876
Murat V, sultan of the Ottoman Empire is deposed and succeeded by his brother Abdul Hamid II.
Thursday, August 31, 1871
Irish scientist Mary Ward
is killed in a steam car accident
, probably the world's first victim of a mechanically-propelled road vehicle.
Wednesday, August 31, 1864
American Civil War: Union forces led by General William T. Sherman launch an assault on Atlanta, Georgia.
Thursday, August 31, 1854
September 8 ndash An epidemic of cholera in London kills 10,000. Dr John Snow traces the source of one outbreak (that killed 500) to a single water pump, validating his theory that cholera is water-borne, and forming the starting point for epidemiology.
Saturday, August 31, 1839
The First Carlist war (Spain
) ends with the Convenio de Vergara, also known as the Abrazo de Vergara (the embrace in Vergara Bergara in Basque), between liberal general Baldomero Espartero
, Count of Luchana and Carlist General Rafael Maroto.
After besieging San Sebastian, allied troops of Spain
rage, ransack and burn down the town almost entirely.
Saturday, August 31, 1715
Opening of Old Dock, Liverpool, England, the world's first enclosed commercial wet dock (Thomas Steers, engineer).
September ndash The first of the major Jacobite Rebellions in Scotland against the rule of King George I breaks out. The Earl of Mar raises the standard of James Edward Stuart and marches on Edinburgh. James, the son of the deposed King James VII, arrives from France.
is told to leave his state apartments in the Whitehall his fame begins to wane and he is soon arrested and imprisoned for sedition
Friday, August 22, 1432 (Julianian calendar)
Sigismund Kęstutaitis attempts a capture or murder of Švitrigaila, his rival for the throne of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Švitrigaila manages to escape.
Saturday, August 22, 1422 (Julianian calendar)
becomes King of England aged nine months.
Friday, August 23, 1314 (Julianian calendar)
October ndash Louis IV
elected Holy Roman Emperor.
Friday, August 24, 1218 (Julianian calendar)
Thursday, August 24, 1217 (Julianian calendar)
Ferdinand becomes King of Castile on abdication of his mother Berengaria.
Friday, August 27, 784 (Julianian calendar)
Paul IV abdicates as Patriarch of Constantinople.