Wednesday, December 22, 2004
Armed robbers in Northern Ireland steal over £22 million from the headquarters of the Northern Bank. Unionist politicians and the Police Service of Northern Ireland blame the Provisional Irish Republican Army, and stall the peace process.
The re-run of the second round of the Ukrainian presidential election takes place. Opposition candidate Viktor Yushchenko is declared the winner.
One of the worst natural disasters in recorded history
hits Southeast Asia
, when the strongest earthquake in 40 years
hits the entire Indian Ocean
region. The massive 9.3 magnitude earthquake
, epicentered just off the west coast of the Indonesia
n island of Sumatra
, generates enormous tsunami waves that crash into the coastal areas of a number of nations including Thailand
, Sri Lanka
, the Maldives
, and Indonesia
. The official death toll in the affected countries stands at 186,983 while more than 40,000 people are still missing.
Sunday, December 22, 2002
"Time Magazine" announced that its Persons of the Year are three female whistleblowers – Coleen Rowley, FBI agent who wrote a memorandum to FBI Director Robert Mueller claiming that the Minneapolis, Minnesota, office had been remiss in its investigation of suspected terrorist Zacarias Moussaoui Cynthia Cooper, former WorldCom auditor, who alerted the company's Board of Directors of accounting irregularities and Sherron Watkins, former Enron Vice President, who reported to the company's former Chairman Kenneth Lay in 2001 that the company was about to collapse as a result of false accounting.
Wednesday, December 22, 1999
Wednesday, December 22, 1993
Tuesday, December 22, 1992
President George H. W. Bush pardons six national security officials implicated in the Iran–Contra affair, including Caspar Weinberger.
Archives of Terror
discovered by Dr. Martín Almada detailing the fates of thousands of Latin Americans who had been secretly kidnapped, tortured, and killed by the security services of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. This was known as Operation Condor.
Sunday, December 22, 1991
Thursday, December 22, 1988
The Russian Mafia begins to expand with the decay of the Soviet Union.
, the first transatlantic telephone cable to use optical fibers, is completed.
The U.S. Drought of 1988
causes big crop damage in many states, impacts many portions of the United States and causes around $60 billion in damage. Multiple regions suffer in the conditions. Heat wave
s cause 4,800 to 17,000 excess deaths while scorching many areas of the United States during 1988.
Wednesday, December 22, 1982
Thursday, December 22, 1966
Prime Minister Ian Smith
declares that Rhodesia is already a republic.
Sunday, December 22, 1963
forms the new government of Turkey
(28th government, coalition partners independents, İnönü has served 10 ten times as a prime minister, this is his last government)
Walt Disney releases his 18th feature-length animated motion picture "The Sword in the Stone", about the boyhood of King Arthur. It is the penultimate animated film personally supervised by Disney.
The cruise ship "Lakonia
" burns north of Madeira
, with the loss of 128 lives.
Saturday, December 22, 1962
in Britain: There are no frost-free nights until March 5, 1963.
Sunday, December 22, 1957
Mao Zedong admits that 800,000 class enemies have been summarily liquidated between 1949 and 1954.
The Africanized bee is accidentally released in Brazil.
, an all-out U.S. war with the Soviet Union, is expected to be triggered by the Soviet takeover of Western Europe, the Near East and parts of Eastern Asia, as it was anticipated in 1949.
Thursday, December 22, 1955
Saturday, December 22, 1951
Sunday, December 22, 1946
Friday, December 22, 1944
WWII: Troopship "Leopoldville" is sunk in the English Channel by German submarine U-486. The ship was carrying reinforcements to the battle of the bulge and 763 soldiers of the 66th Infantry Division (United States) drown.
WWII: American troops repulse German forces at Bastogne.
The first complete U.S. production of Tchaikovsky's ballet "The Nutcracker
" is presented in San Francisco
, choreographed by William Christensen
. It will become an annual tradition there, and for the next ten years, the San Francisco
Ballet will be the only ballet company in the United States performing the complete work, until George Balanchine
premieres his version in New York in 1954.
WWII: Brigadier General Anthony C. McAuliffe
, commander of the U.S. forces defending Bastogne
, refuses to accept demands for surrender by sending a one-word reply, Nuts!, to the German command.
WWII: The Bulge reaches its deepest point at Celles
Wednesday, December 22, 1920
Friday, December 22, 1916
The British Sopwith Camel
aircraft makes its maiden flight. It was designed to counter the German's Fokker
Saturday, December 22, 1894
Western countries give up their extraterritorial rights in Japan.
Dreyfus Affair: French Army officer Alfred Dreyfus
is convicted of treason.
Oil is discovered on the Osage
Indian reservation, making the Osage
the "richest group of people in the world".
, peasant unrest erupts in the Donghak Peasant Revolution
, a massive revolt of followers of the Donghak
movement. Both China and Japan send military forces, claiming to come to the Korea
n government's aid. They end up fighting each other instead.
Chatham Episcopal Institute (now known as Chatham Hall ) is founded in Chatham Virginia , U.S.
Thursday, December 22, 1892
A cholera outbreak occurs in Hamburg, Germany.
Andrew Carnegie combines all of his separate businesses into the Carnegie Steel Company, allowing him to gain a monopoly in the steel industry.
The first Canadian National Rugby-Football Chionship game is played (Osgoode Hall defeats Montreal 45–5).
Inter-Parliamentary Bureau for Permanent Arbitration
Abu Dhabi becomes a British protectorate.
The Newcastle East End F.C. is renamed Newcastle United F.C.
, following the demise of the Newcastle West End F.C. and East End's move to St James' Park, formerly West End's home.
Worthington, Ontario, Canada is incorporated as a mining community.
Tuesday, December 22, 1891
Asteroid 323 Brucia
becomes the first asteroid discovered using photography.
Skansen is established as the world's first open air museum by Artur Hazelius on the island of Djurgården in Stockholm, Sweden.
Monday, December 22, 1873
Battle of Bocairente
-Third Carlist War
-Caigning in Valenica, Spanish Republican General Valeriano Weyler
is attacked at Bocairente, northwest of Alcoy, by a greatly superior Carlist force under General José Santés. Weyler was initially driven back, losing some of his guns, but in a brilliant counter-attack he turns defeat into victory and Santés is heavily repulsed and forced to withdraw.
Saturday, December 22, 1855
St duty is removed from newspapers in Britain, creating mass market media in the United Kingdom.
Ramón Castilla starts to rule for a second time in Peru.
Monday, December 22, 1845
December 23 ndash Battle of Ferozeshah: British forces defeat Sikhs in Punjab.
Thursday, December 22, 1808
1808 ndash 1865
ndash 500,000 African slaves arrive in Cuba
Tuesday, December 22, 1807
The world's oldest international football stadium, the Racecourse Ground
, opens in Wrexham
, although it will not host football games until 1872.
Monday, December 22, 1721
Friday, December 22, 1719
Miners in Falun, Sweden find the apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused part of the copper mine.
publishes the "American Weekly Mercury", Pennsylvania's first newspaper.
Raine's Foundation School, Bethnal Green, opens in Wapping (opened by Henry Raine).
Monday, December 22, 1681
Collections are made in England
for needy French refugees.
King Charles II of England signs a warrant for the building of the Royal Hospital Chelsea.
The last dodo bird is killed.
Wednesday, December 22, 1666
The year is also known for having all the Roman numerals
, used only once, in order from biggest to smallest value (MDCLXVI = 1666).
Expulsion of the Portuguese from the Bengal port city of Chittagong by Mughal forces of Emperor Aurangzeb under General Bujurg Umed Khan and renaming the city as Islamabad.
The "Académie des sciences" (French Academy of Sciences) is founded by Louis XIV.
Sir Isaac Newton uses a prism to split sunlight into its component colors, which helps us understand the nature of light more comprehensively (see optical spectrum). He made a huge number of discoveries and inventions during this year, leading it to be referred to as his Annus Mirabilis.
Thursday, December 22, 1616
The Leicesterwitch trial
, in which nine women were hanged on the testimony of a raving 13-year old boy named John Smith, is held under the 1604
Witchcraft Statute of King James I
.Source: Robbins, Russell Hope. The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology. New York: Bonanza Books, 1959. This bill was supported by some of the most able and learned men in England, including the Earl of Northumberland
, the Bishop of Lincoln
, the Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas
, the Attorney General for England and Wales
, the Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer
, and the Chief Justice of the King's Bench
A fatal disease of cattle, probably rinderpest, spreads through the Italian provinces of Padua, Udine, Treviso, and Vicenza, introduced most likely from Dalmatia or Hungary. Great numbers of cattle die in Italy, as they had in previous years (1559, 1562, 1566, 1590, 1598) in other European regions when harvest failure also drives people to the brink of starvation (for exle, 1595–1597 in Germany). The consumption of beef and veal is prohibited, and Pope Paul V issues an edict prohibiting the slaughter of draught oxen that were suitable for plowing. Calves are also not slaughtered for a some time afterwards, so that Italy's cattle herds can be replenished.Clive A. Spinage. 2003. "Cattle plague: a history". New York: Springer. ISBN 0-306-47789-0.
The States of Holland
set up a commission to advise them on the problem of Jew
ish residency and worship. One of the members of the commission is Hugo Grotius
(Hugo de Groot
), a highly regarded jurist and one of the most important political thinkers of his day.
n youth (called one of the first fruits of India
) is baptized with the name Peter in London
at the St. Dionis Backchurch, in a ceremony attended by the Lord Mayor
, the Privy Council
, city aldermen, and officials of the Honourable East India
Company. Peter thus becomes the first convert to the Anglican Church
. He returns to India
as a missionary, schooled in English and Latin.Rozina Visram. "Asians in Britain: 400 Years of History". Pluto Press. 504 pp. (ISBN 0-7453-1373-6)
In the Edo Era of Japan, Hideyori's forces are defeated during the Summer Battle of 1616, he commits suicide, and the house of Toyotomi is ended.
Week-long festivities in honor of the Prince of Urbano
, of the Barbarini family, occur in Florence
.From an etching in the "Guerre de Beauté", a series of six etchings depicting a celebration which took place in Florence
in the year 1616 in honor of the prince of Urbino.
writes his influential book "The Triall of Witch-craft."
With much legal strife and the encouragement of Sir Francis Bacon, Chief Justice Edward Coke is dismissed from the King's Bench, and the royal prerogatives of King James I triumph over English common law.
Moralist writer John Deacon publishes a quarto entitled "Tobacco Tortured in the Filthy Fumes of Tobacco Refined." (Even King James I writes against this fad.) Deacon writes the same year that syphilis is a Turkished, Spanished, or Frenchized disease that the English contract by trafficking with the contagious courruptions.
A second witch craze breaks out in Biscay, Spain. An Edict of Silence is issued by the Inquisition, but the king overturns the Edict and 300 accused witches are burned alive.
Jesuit astronomer Christoph Scheiner becomes the advisor to Archduke Maximilian, brother of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II in Vienna. In a series of published letters in 1612 and 1613, Scheiner had sparred with Galileo over the nature of sunspots and been roundly trounced since Galileo's careful observations indicated that sunspots could not be satellites around the Sun because they often disappear on the disk. In fact, Scheiner sought to remove these smudges to the celestial body's immaculate reputation. A life-long enemy of Galileo, Scheiner is credited with reopening the 1616 accusations against Galileo in 1633.
Drink to me only with thine eyes comes from Ben Jonson
's love poem, "To Celia
". Ben Jonson
's poetic lamentation "On my first Sonne" is also from this year.
Constantinople's Sultan Ahmed Mosque (also known as the "Blue Mosque") is completed during the rule of Ahmed I.
The Tepehuán Revolt in Nueva Vizcaya tests the limits of Spanish and Jesuit colonialism in western and northwestern Durango and southern Chihuahua, Mexico.
The first African slaves are brought to Bermuda, an English colony, by Captain George Bargrave to dive for pearls, because of their reputed skill in pearl-diving. Harvesting pearls off the coast proves unsuccessful, and the slaves are put to work planting and harvesting the initial large crops of tobacco and sugar cane.Virginia Bernhard. 1999. "Slaves and Slaveholders in Bermuda, 1616-1782". Columbia, University of Missouri Press. (At the same time, the freedom-loving English refused to purchase Brazilian sugar because it was produced by slave labor.Sidney W. Mintz. 1986. "Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History".)
John Speed publishes his Atlas of England.
The Uskok War (1615-18) continues between the Austrians and Spanish (Habsburg Empire) on one side and the Venetians, Dutch, and English on the other. An Austro-Turkish treaty is signed in Belgrade under which the Austrians are granted the right to navigate the middle and lower Danube River by the Ottoman Empire.
At the behest of Sir Ferdinando Gorges
, Dr. Richard Vines, a physician, passes the winter of 1616—17 at Biddeford
, at the mouth of the Saco River
, that he calls Winter Harbor. This is the site of the earliest permanent settlement in Maine
of which we have a conclusive record. Maine
will become an important refuge for religious dissenters persecuted by the Puritans
Scot John Napier's " Description of the Admirable Table of Logarithms" is published, a great boon to mathematics. The decimal point makes its first appearance in Napier's book "Descriptio." Astronomer Johannes Kepler soon thereafter begins to employ logarithms in his description of the solar system.
The witch trial of in-keeper Harmonia Applegate, who was arrested on February 20
, for poisoning 32 of her guests over the course of 12 years, is held. When questioned, Applegate gives excuses ranging from non-payment of debt to offence at guests' body odour.
Fort San Diego, in Acapulco
, is completed by the Spanish
as a defence against their erstwhile vassals
, the Dutch
.Engel Sluiter. 1949. The Fortification of Acapulco
, 1615-1616. "The Hispanic American Historical Review", Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 69–80. Today the fort houses the Acapulco
Richard Steel and John Crowther complete their journey from Ajmeer in Mogul India, to Ispahan, Persia.
Father Christmas is a main character of the Christmas masque written by Ben Jonson and presented at the court of King James I of England. Father Christmas is considered a papist symbol by Puritans, and later banished from England until the Restoration of Charles II shortly after Oliver Cromwell's death. The traditional, comical costume for this jolly figure, as well as regional names, leaves little doubt that he is descended from the presenter of the medieval Feast of Fools. (Ben Jonson received a royal pension of 100 marks in 1616, causing some historians to identify him as England's first Poet Laureate, even though John Fletcher was more popular).
Tommaso Canella’s book "In Defence of Galileo" is written.
ia, the mosque of Youssef Deyis is built. Today it has an octagonal minaret
crowned with a miniature green-tiled pyramid
for a roof.
The Ottoman Empire attempts landings at the shoreline between Cadiz and Lisbon.
In London and neighboring towns, an epidemic of louse-borne typhus ravages the poor, crowded English. Lack of bathing encourages body lice that, when scratched, defecate on the skin, where a minor cut or sore can serve as an entry portal for the typhus-infected feces to enter the bloodstream, leading to high fever, delirium, and gangrenous sores.
Human deformities are seen as producing monsters. Italian Fortunio Liceti publishes his book "De monstrorum natura caussis et differentiis" ("On the nature, causes and differences of monsters").
An important Englishdictionary
is published by Dr. John Bullokar
with the title "An English
Expositour teaching the Interpretation of the hardest Words used in our Language with sundry Explications, Descriptions and Discourses".
Francis de Sales
' literary masterpiece "Treatise on the Love of God" is published, while he is Bishop of Geneva
The New England Indian smallpox epidemic of 1616–1619 begins to depopulate the region, killing an estimated 90% of the coastal native peoples.Timothy Bratton. 1988. Identity of the New England Indian Epidemic of 1616-1619. "Bulletin of the History of Medicine", 62(3): 352–383.
Saint Ambrose Edward Barlow, recently graduated from the College of Saint Gregory, Douai, France, and the Royal College of Saint Alban in Valladolid, Spain, enters the Benedictine Order. In 1641 he is hanged, drawn and quartered in Lancaster, England, for preaching.
Isaac Beeckman (1588–1637), Dutch intellectual and friend of René Decartes, has his own candle factory in Zierikzee, Netherlands, until 1616, when he returns to Middelburg to study medicine. In 1618, he takes his degree at the French university of Caen, with the defence of his "Theses de febre tertiana intermittente". His notebooks, unfortunately not fully published until the 20th century, reveal a coherent mechanical philosophy of nature with incipient atomism, a force of inertia, and mathematical interpretations of natural philosophy are present.K. van Berkel. 1983. "Isaac Beeckman (1588-1637) en de mechanisering van het wereldbeeld". Amsterdam. (An English edition is forthcoming.)
n leader Qing Tai Zu crowns himself king.
A slave ship carries smallpox from the Kongo to Salvador, Brazil.Henry F. Dobyns. 1993. Disease Transfer at Contact. "Annual Review of Anthropology", 22: 273–291.
The Dutch establish their colony of Essequibo in the region of the Essequibo River in northern South America (present-day Guyana) for sugar and tobacco production. The colony is protected by the Kyk-Over-Al fort, now in ruins. The Dutch also map the Delaware River in North America.
Croatian mathematician Faustus Verantius publishes his book "Machinae novae," a book of mechanical and technological inventions, some of which are applicable to the solutions of hydrological problems, and others concern the construction of clepsydras, sundials, mills, presses, and bridges, and boats for widely different uses.
Anti-Christian persecutions break out in Nanking, China, and Nagasaki, Japan. The Jesuit-lead Christian community in Japan at this time was over 3000,000 strong.
Marie Venier, dite Laporte, is the first female actress to appear on the stage
. She is either a dramatic actress or a comedienne
.Searles, Colbert (1925) Allusions to the Contemporary Theater of 1616 by Francois Rosset. Modern Language Notes, 40(8): 481–483.
Italian naturalist Fabio Colonna states that tongue stones (glossopetrae) are shark
teeth in his treatise "De glossopetris dissertatio".
Ngawang Namgyal arrives in Bhutan, having escaped Tibet.
Monday, December 22, 1603
Sunday, December 15, 1168 (Julianian calendar)
The newly born Commune of Rome
conquers and destroys the rival neighboring city of Albano
.Jean-Claude Maire Vigueur (2010) "L'autre Rome. Une histoire des Romains à l'époque communale (XIIe-XIVe siècle)." Paris: Tallandier. pp.314.
Afraid that the Egyptian capital Fustat
(in today's Old Cairo
) will be captured by the Crusade
rs, its Fatimid
, orders the city set afire. The city burns for 54 days.
Emperor Takakura ascends to the throne of Japan.
Friday, December 18, 856 (Julianian calendar)
Sunday, December 24, 69 (Julianian calendar)
, Jewish rebel leader, is dragged before Vespasian and becomes his historian
. He prophesied him his elevation to the purple.
Vitellius is captured and murdered by the Gemonian stairs
. Vespasian becomes emperor.