Tuesday, December 25, 2007
Monday, December 25, 2006
Monday, December 25, 2000
Wednesday, December 25, 1996
Tuesday, December 25, 1990
Monday, December 25, 1978
Thursday, December 25, 1975
Iron Maiden is formed by Steve Harris.
Monday, December 25, 1972
Friday, December 25, 1970
The ETA releases Eugen Beihl.
Saturday, December 25, 1965
The Yemeni Nasserite Unionist People's Organisation is founded in Taiz.
Thursday, December 25, 1958
Friday, December 25, 1953
Amami Islands are returned to Japan after 8 years of United States Military occupation.
Thursday, December 25, 1952
Wednesday, December 25, 1946
The first artificial, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction in Europe was initiated within the Soviet (Russian) nuclear reactor F-1.
David Lean's "Great Expectations", based on the Charles Dickens novel, and featuring John Mills, Valerie Hobson, Martita Hunt, Alec Guinness, Francis L. Sullivan, Jean Simmons, and Finlay Currie, is released to great acclaim in the UK.
Thursday, December 25, 1941
WWII: The British and Canadians are defeated
by the Japanese at Hong Kong.
Saturday, December 25, 1937
Friday, December 25, 1925
IG Farben formed by merger of six chemical companies in Germany.
Saturday, December 25, 1920
, a narcotic analgesic closely related to codeine is first synthesized in Germany
Thursday, December 25, 1919
Earl W. Bascom, rodeo cowboy and artist, along with his father John W. Bascom at Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, designs and makes rodeo's first reverse-opening side-delivery bucking chute, now the world standard.
Various strikes occur in the United States: Strike of US railroad workers The Longshoreman's strike The Great Steel Strike and a general strike in Seattle, Washington.
Female suffrage is enacted in Germany and Luxembourg.
Tuesday, December 25, 1917
"Why Marry?", the first dramatic play to win a Pulitzer Prize, opens at the Astor Theatre in New York City.
Saturday, December 25, 1915
In WWI, British and German forces declare a Christmas truce, get out of the trenches and have a free-for-all kick-around football game in no-man's land.
Friday, December 25, 1896
John Philip Sousa composes his magnum opus, the "Stars and Stripes Forever", on Christmas Day.
Sunday, December 25, 1887
Publication in Barcelona of Enrique Gaspar's "El anacronópete", the first work of fiction to feature a time machine.
Heinrich Hertz discovers the photoelectric effect on the production and reception of electromagnetic (EM) waves (radio). This was an important step towards the understanding of the quantum nature of light.
Heyl Patterson Inc., a pioneer in coal unloading equipment, is founded by Edmund W. Heyl and William J. Patterson.
publishes Über freie Körper in den Gelenken in the medical journal "Deutsche Zeitschrift für Chirurgie", describing (and naming) the disease Osteochondritis dissecans
for the first time.
" single malt Scotch whisky is first produced.
Saturday, December 25, 1886
Horse-drawn streetcars of Austria-Hungary, France, Germany and Great Britain are carrying c. 900 million riders per year.
Heinz Baked Beans are first launched at the Fortnum Mason department store in London, United Kingdom, although they are manufactured in Canada.
Saturday, December 25, 1875
Widespread nationalist rebellion in the Ottoman Empire has resulted in Turkish repression, Russian intervention and Great Power tensions.
Third Carlist War
: Two government armies (General Quesada and Martínez Cos) start encroaching on Carlist territory. Both they and their Carlist opponent (Mendiri) drive opposing sympathisers from their homes and burn crops in areas they can not hold. Several Carlist generals (Dorregaray, Savalls, and others) are unjustly put on trial for disloyalty. Mendiri is also removed from his command, and is replaced by the Count of Caserta. Despite having 48 infantry battalions, three cavalry regiments, two engineer battalions, and 100 pieces of artillery at his disposal, Caserta is heavily outnumbered by the government forces opposing him.
The Hibernian F.C. is founded in the Cowgate area of Edinburgh, Scotland.
: Henry Cavendish Jones convinces the All England Croquet Club to replace a croquet court with a lawn tennis court.
state declares partial bankruptcy
and places its finances in the hands of European creditors.
Monday, December 25, 1871
Friday, December 25, 1868
Brisbane Grammar School is founded, providing the opportunity for secondary education for the first time in the colony of Brisbane in Australia.
The population of Japan
reaches c. 30 million.
Louis Arthur Ducos du Hauron patents methods of color photography.
Sunday, December 25, 1814
Samuel Marsden of the Church Missionary Society preaches the first sermon in New Zealand at Oihi
Thursday, December 25, 1800
Saturday, December 25, 1784
The North Carolina General Assembly incorporates the town of Morgansborough, named for Daniel Morgan. The town is designated as the county seat for Burke County, North Carolina and is subsequently renamed Morgantown and later shortened to become Morganton.
Act requires that the governor general
be chosen from outside the British East India
Company and it makes company directors subject to parliamentary supervision.
Carl Friedrich Gauss pioneers the field of summation with the formula summing 1:n as (n(n+1))/2, at the age of 7.
Benjamin Franklin tries in vain to persuade the French to alter their clocks in winter to take advantage of the daylight.
The Japanese famine continues as 300,000 die of starvation.
Saturday, December 25, 1779
Joint Spanish-Portuguese survey of Amazonia begins to determine the boundary between the colonial possessions in South America. Continues until 1795.
Wednesday, December 25, 1776
American Revolution: Gen. George Washington orders the first issue of "The Crisis" read to his troops on Christmas Eve, then at 6 p.m. all 2600 of them march to McKonkey's Ferry
, cross the Delaware River
and land on the Jersey bank at 3 a.m.
Monday, December 25, 1758
Fire destroys part of Oslo
, then called Christiania.
The first Isakov family member (Trifun Isakov) is mentioned in "Melenci
appears for the first time after Halley's discovery of it.
Saturday, December 25, 1745
Monday, December 25, 1741
is occupied by French-Bavarian armies.
The population of China
reaches c. 143 million.
Wednesday, December 25, 1709
"De Nostri Temporis Studiorum Rationae" ("On the Study Methods of Our Times") is published by Neapolitan
philosopher Giambattista Vico
In London, 10 ships leave for the New York colony, carrying over 4,000 people.
Friday, December 25, 1705
The Shogunate confiscates the property of a merchant in Osaka for conduct unbecoming a member of the commercial class. The government seizes 50 pairs of gold screens, 360 carpets, several mansions, 48 granaries and warehouses scattered around the country and hundreds of thoudands of gold pieces.
With the interest paid from daimyo loans, the Konoike buy a tract of ponds and swland, turn the land into rice paddies and settle 480 households numbering perhaps 2,880 peasants on the land.
, capital of Bavaria
, 1100 militiamen from the Oberland
are killed during the Sendlinger Mordweihnacht
, after a failed attempt to break through several gates and capture a depot to seize better weaponry many men were slaughtered by German federal infantry and Hungarian Husars, despite their capitulation to Austria
Sunday, December 25, 1650
The first modern Palio
horserace is held in Siena
Thomas Cooper, former Usher of Gresham's School, England, is hanged as a Royalist rebel.
Jews are allowed to return to France and England.
Ann Greene, who had been hanged for infanticide
, wakes up on an autopsy table she is pardoned.
Friday, December 25, 1643
Hong Taiji, Emperor of the Qing Dynasty of the Manchu dies and is succeeded by his 5-year-old son, the later Shunzhi Emperor of China.
An Calbhach mac Aodha O Conchobhair Donn is inaugurated as the last king of Connacht
Friday, December 15, 1559 (Julianian calendar)
Oda Nobunaga wins control of his native province of Owari.
Margaret of Parma becomes Governor of the Netherlands in place of her brother, King Philip II of Spain.
Between 1559 and 1736 almost 1,000 people accused of being witches are executed in England.
, French ambassador to Portugal
1559ndash61, describes the medicinal properties of tobacco
which he introduces in the form of snuff
to the French court.
Friday, December 15, 1553 (Julianian calendar)
Battle of Tucapel: Mapuche rebels under Lautaro defeat the Spanish conquistadors and execute Pedro de Valdivia, the first Royal Governor of Chile.
is fortified for the first time.
Tuesday, December 16, 1494 (Julianian calendar)
Na'od succeeds his nephew Amda Seyon II as Emperor of Ethiopia.
Thursday, December 16, 1406 (Julianian calendar)
John II becomes King of Castile.
Eric of Pomerania marries Philippa, daughter of Henry IV of England.
becomes King of Scotland, after having been captured by Henry IV of England.
Construction of the Forbidden City begins in Beijing during the Chinese Ming Dynasty.
Wednesday, December 17, 1376 (Julianian calendar)
Sultan of Egypt Nasir-ad-Din Shaban II is succeeded by Alah-ad-Din Ali.
Catherine of Siena visits Pope Gregory XI in Avignon to attempt to persuade him to make peace with Florence and move the Papacy back to Rome.
John of Gaunt presents his nephew, Richard of Bordeaux, to the feudatories of the realm and swears to uphold Richard's right to succeed Edward III.
Timur leads his army against troops of the White Horde which have arrived at Sighnaq. However, winter sets in, preventing an immediate battle.
Khan Qamar al-din of Mongolistan unsuccessfully invades Timur
’s eastern province of Farghana
Qutbuddin succeeds his brother, Shahabuddin, as Sultan of Kashmir
Saturday, December 17, 1356 (Julianian calendar)
Burnt Candlemas: Edward III of England burns down every town and village in Lothian, Scotland.
The Hanseatic League, a trading alliance between many cities in northern Europe, is officially founded.
Ghazan II replaces Anusirvan as ruler of the Il-Khanate in Persia.
The majority of the Great Pyramid of Giza's limestone casing stones are removed by Bahri Sultan An-Nasir Nasir-ad-Din al-Hasan to build fortresses and mosques in the nearby city of Cairo, leaving the first of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World in the step-stone condition in which it remains today.
Monday, December 17, 1347 (Julianian calendar)
First cases of the plague recorded in the city of Split
Wednesday, December 18, 1252 (Julianian calendar)
The Lithuanian city of Klaipėda ("Memel") is founded by the Teutonic Knights.
The first European gold coins are minted in the Italian city of Florence, and are known as florins.
The town and monastery of Orval Abbey
burn to the ground rebuilding takes 100 years.
The Mongols take the westernmost province of the Song Dynasty empire.
Sunday, December 18, 1194 (Julianian calendar)
Henry Marshal becomes Bishop of Exeter.
Tuesday, December 18, 1156 (Julianian calendar)
Saturday, December 18, 1143 (Julianian calendar)
Thursday, December 18, 1130 (Julianian calendar)
Magnus the Strong is deposed as king of Gothenland, when Sverker the Elder proclaims himself king of Sweden.
Antipope Anacletus crowns Roger II of Sicily king.
Tuesday, December 18, 1100 (Julianian calendar)
is invented (approximate date).
Foundation of the Diocese of Faroe
Dagobert of Pisa becomes Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem.
, the Althing
decides that the laws should be transferred to a written form.
Monday, December 19, 1076 (Julianian calendar)
Friday, December 19, 1046 (Julianian calendar)
Song Dynasty Chinese judge and magistrate Bao Qingtian writes a memorial to the throne, warning about governmental corruption and a foreseeable bankruptcy of the Chinese iron industry, if increasingly poorer families continued to be listed on the register for iron-smelting households (while more rich households avoid being listed for fear of financial calamity). Apparently the government heeds the warning, and produces more iron product by the year 1078 than China ever had before.
Ealdred, Bishop of Worcester, leads troops from England on an unsuccessful punitive raid against Welsh leaders Gruffydd ap Rhydderch, Rhys ap Rhydderch and Gruffydd ap Llywelyn.
Sunday, December 19, 1003 (Julianian calendar)
Pope John XVIII succeeds Pope John XVII as the 141st pope.
Thursday, December 19, 1000 (Julianian calendar)
Iceland adopts Christianity as its official religion.
Kandariya Mahadeva temple, Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India, is built. Chandela dynasty, Early Medieval period (approximate date).
Arab Muslim scientist, Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), writes his influential "Book of Optics".
Sweyn I establishes Danish control over part of Norway.
Oslo, Norway is founded (the exact year is debatable, but the 1,000 year anniversary was held in the year 2000).
Gunpowder is invented in China
Emperor Otto III makes a pilgrimage from Rome to Aachen and Gniezno (Gnesen), stopping at Regensburg, Meissen, Magdeburg, and Gniezno. The Congress of Gniezno (with Bolesław I Chrobry) is part of his pilgrimage. In Rome, he builds the basilica of San Bartolomeo all'Isola, to host the relics of St. Bartholomew.
Tuesday, December 21, 801 (Julianian calendar)
Tuesday, December 21, 784 (Julianian calendar)
is elected Patriarch of Constantinople.
Tuesday, December 24, 496 (Julianian calendar)
Clovis I is baptized into the Catholic faith at Rheims, by Saint Remigius. The conversion strengthen the bonds between his Gallo-Roman subjects, led by their Catholic bishops.
Emperor Xiao Wen Di of Northern Wei starts the Sinicization process by changing his clan name to the Han Chinese surname Yuan.
Saturday, December 24, 432 (Julianian calendar)
Monday, December 24, 350 (Julianian calendar)
Vetranio meets Constantius II at Naissus
) and assembled the troops. He is forced to abdicated his title and Constantius allows him to live as a private citizen on a state pension.
About this time the Huns
begin to invade the Sassanid Empire
.Roberts, J: History of the World.. Penguin, 1994.
Monday, December 24, 333 (Julianian calendar)
Saturday, December 24, 320 (Julianian calendar)
s introduced as the birthday of Jesus.
Aurelian has a temple dedicated to Sol Invictus
on the third day after the solstice
and day of rebirth of the Sun. This religion, which is in essence monotheistic, becomes the state religion
The Kingdom of Aksum
attains great prosperity thanks to its control of Red Sea
rebels over the value of coinage.