Mutsuhito (the future Emperor Meiji) becomes Crown Prince of Japan.
Monday, July 11, 1859
By the preliminary treaty signed at Villafranca, Italy, Lombardy is ceded to the French (who immediately cede it to Sardinia), while the Austrians keep Venetia and the French promise to restore the Central Italian rulers expelled in the course of the war. This brings the Austro-Sardinian War effectively to a close.
Battle of the Boyne, north of Dublin. King William III of England (William of Orange) defeats the deposed James II who returns to exile in France.The battle took place on July 1 according to the old style Julian calendar in use at this time by the English. This is equivalent to 11 July in the new style Gregorian calendar, although today commemorated on July 12.ref name=Cassell's Chronology The rebellion in Ireland continues for a further year until the Orange army gains full control.
Ming Dynasty fleet commander Zheng He sets sail from Suzhou to explore the world for the first time.
Monday, July 3, 1346 (Julianian calendar)
July 12 ndash Edward III and the English army cross the English Channel and begin an invasion of France.ref name = battleLynn, John. "Battle: a History of Combat and Culture." Boulder: Westview Press, 2004. pp. 91–92 ISBN 0-8133-3372-5